433-A - Trace Analyser

“Plug and Play” Polarographic Analyser

433Trace analysis have never been important than today where detection of heavy metals and other pollutant compounds requires a continuos surveillance in many samples like water, food, beverages etc. For the first time a high performance static mercury drop electrode and a COMPLETE COMPUTERISED TRACE ANALYSER have been put together in a single, compact enclosure to produce the most sophisticated instrument never conceived for polarographic and voltammetric research and applications.

The Model 433-A is a really complete unit requiring no external accessories to be put in work: just connect it to any personal computer and you are up and ready for your analysis.

The instrument in fact is supplied with a Windows© software without any price increase.

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Main features:

  • Trace analysis of metals at 1µg/l level
  • Analysis of organic compounds
  • Ideal for quality and process control laboratory
  • High versatility for research

Mercury Valve, the instrument's heart

433Most of the exceptional performance of the 433 relies on the unique design of the mercury-dispensing device and capillary.

Any problems present in other similar instruments have been completely removed: no pressurisation, no mechanics in direct contact with mercury, perfect reproducibility of mercury drop, use of simple and easy replaceable capillaries grant a long working life with unaltered accuracy.

A fully-equipped cell head

433The supporting block contains a complete set of electrodes, two-way gas purging inlet/outlet, sample injection port and full sealing to insure a complete tightness of the cell (available in different materials and shapes).

A rotating-field magnetic stirrer provides accurate solution stirring during sample purging or anodic stripping. All parts in contact with the solution are made in Teflon®, Viton® or Silicone Rubber® for long life and minimum pollution of samples. The built-in electrodes can be easily removed for cleaning, refilling or to be replaced with external ones: for this purpose a set of connections is made available on the cell block itself.

No longer mercury free on the lab.

he mercury reservoir is another unique AMEL innovation: made completely out of polypropilene, it is fully sealed with respect the outside ambient allowing safe operation under any condition without risks for ambient pollution. A plastic rotating cock allows complete isolation of the reservoir from the valve in order to replace the latter without empty the former. The large reservoir capacity (about 3 kg) allows months of continuous operation without refilling need; the tightness of the reservoir preserves the mercury from pollution and dust. The 433 can be moved around in the lab or even transported by car for short distances filled up without spillage risk!

Technical Specifications:


  • Output Voltage Compliance: ±12V
  • Output Current: ±10mA
  • Response Time: ±10µS

I/E Converter

  • Current Scales: Six decades ±20nA, ±2mA
  • Output Signal at full scale: ±10V
  • Response Time: ±10µS
  • Filter Time Constant: 600mS

Analog to Digital Converter

  • Type: Successive Approximation
  • Resolution:12bits, bipolar
  • Conversion Time: 25µS typical

Digital to AnalogConverter

  • Resolution:16bits, bipolar
  • Linearity: ±0.003% of full scale
  • Settling Time: 3µS typical
  • Output Signal: ±4.095V or ±2.047V

Backing-off Converter

  • Compensation Range: ±200% of full scale
  • Resolution:8bits, bipolar


  • Capillary: Glass 135x6 mm. Bore 0.1 mm
  • Counter Electrode: Platinum Wire 5x1 mm
  • Reference: Ag-AgCI Filled with saturated KCl

Digital Interface

  • Type: Serial standard RS-232C FULLY OPTO-INSULATED
  • Lines: TX, RX, GND, RTS, CTS, DCD, DTR
  • Baud Rates: 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600

Digital Section

  • Microprocessor: Z80-A CPU (4MHz)
  • Program Memory: C-MOS RAM 32Kx8 with backup battery (six months retention)
  • Local Console: LCD alphanumeric display with two rows of 16 characters

Setup Parameters

  • Potential Ranges: ±2.047V or ±4.095V with 62.58µV or 125µV resolution
  • Scan Increment: 62.5µV minimum
  • Scan Rates: from 1µV/s up to about 300mV/s higher rates degrade resolution
  • Pulse Height: ±2V with 62.5µV resolution
  • Pulse Duration: up to 65s with 1ms increment
  • Drop Size: 80 different sizes
  • Drop Time: 1 to 10 seconds
  • Purge Time: 0 to 30 minutes
  • Stirring Time: 0 to 30 minutes
  • Stirring Speed: 100 to 800 r.p.m.
  • Replications: 1 to 256
  • Data Points: up to 6140 couples current-potential can be stored consecutivele

Power Supply

  • 110/220V a.c.: 40-60Hz: 60VA max

Size and Weight

  • Size: 200x300 mm; 390 mm height;
  • Weigth: 10 kg without mercury and accessories

Accessories and replacement parts:

430C 430/C Capillary
430 cell 430/GC Standard Cell
430TJ 430/T3 Thermostatic Jacket Cell
430MC 430/MC  Microcell 1-2 ml
 430TE 430/TE  Teflon® Cell
430LC 430/LC Pyrex cup with luggin capillary
 430UC 430/UC External cell for solid electrodes
430/SSG/6J Ag-AgCl electrode for cell 430/MC and 430/LC
430/PM Pourous Membrane

Teflon® and Viton® are registered trademarks of DuPont Dow Elastomers.

Application Fields:

In the following table we are listing the most important classes of Organic Compounds which can be subjected to Voltammetric or Polarographic analysis.

Acids Ascorbic, Fumaric, Maleic, Salicilic, Oxalic, Phtalic, NTA, EDTA, Lactic, Acetylsalycilic, Tartaric, Boric
Aldheydes Formaldheyde,Benzoic, Citral
Ketons Anthraquinone, Acetone
Aromatics Antioxidisers, Nitrobenzoic Acid, Butyl-cathecol and p-metoxiphenol, Chloroamphenicol, Phenylbutazone, Oxiphenbutazone
Halogen Derivates DDT, Pesticides
Alcohols Diols, Quinhydrone
Ammines Hydrazine, Ammonia, Aniline, Pyridine
Amides Thiourea, Phtalimide
Sugars Fructose
Miscellaneous Saccharine, Vanillin, Nicotine, Metylen-bisthiocyanate, Tetracycline, Liposoluble, Vitamins, Amino-acids, Theophylline, Veronal, Quinine, Bilirubin...

The principal application areas:

  • DRINKS: Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Fructose, Saccaharine
  • FRUIT JUICES: Vitamin C, Lead, Cadmium, Preservatives
  • WINES: Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Sulphites, Fructose, Aminoacids
  • OILS: Vitamins, Nickel, Antioxidisers, SO2MEAT: Lead, Nickel, Nitrates, Nitrites, ZincFRUITS: Vitamin C, Organic acidsCEREALS: Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, IronMILK: Cadmium
Waters Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Tin, Molybdenum, Boric Acid, Saccharine, Formaldehyde, Cyanides, Bismuth, Antimony, Vanadium, Titanium, Manganese
Mineral Soils and Metallurgy All Metals
Cosmetics and Detergentes Preservatives, Lead, Cadmium, Formaldehyde, Arsenic, EDTA, NTA
Pharmaceuticals Active principles, even in complex matrices. Chloroamphenicol, Tetracycline, Vitamins, Amino-acids, Theophylline, Veronal
Biology Heavy metals in human blood and other biological fluids (urine)
Medicine Bilirubin, Morphine


Operating principle:

Download the Trace Analysis Documentation at Voltammetry Support Page

Available Techniques Supplied with the Software

Polarography Voltammetry Anodic Stripping
D.C. D.C. D.C.
TAST Cyclic
Normal Pulse Differential Pulse Differential Pulse
Differential Pulse Square Wave Square Wave

Application software:


Application software allows to perform almost all presently known polarographic and voltammetric techniques including SQUARE WAVE, STRIPPING ANALYSIS, CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY, etc.

This package runs under WINDOWS® and requires at least a 486 PC fitted with a colour VGA monitor, 8 Mbytes of RAM MEMORY, 66 Mhz clock frequency, serial and a parallel port, a mouse and 3.x WINDOWS ® (or WINDOWS 95 ®) operating system.

This program allows to perform trace polarographic, voltammetric and stripping analysis with the greatest ease interfacing the instrument with a clear-menu driven sequence, options, graphic manipulations and file management using all features and advantages of windows operating system. The above program is supplied on a single HD 3,5 diskette and must be installed on the computer's Hard disk for execution and use.

Download Software DEMO for Windows 3.x and 95 (600Kb)